Thursday, May 21, 2020
Slavery and Politics Celia, a Slave was a truthful elucidation of one disengaged episode that delineated basic slave dread amid the prior to the war time of the United States. Melton A. McLaurin, utilized this record of a youthful slave lady s battle through the undeserved hardships of assault and unfairness to disclose to today s guileless society a superior delineation of what servitude could have been similar to. The tale of Celia delineates the base of racial issues Americans still face in their general public. In spite of the fact that not about as great, they keep on living in a white-male overwhelmed society that looks downward on African-Americans, particularly females. McLaurin takes a gander at the perspectives of the time, and conjectures the probabilities of this pre - Civil War time, the estimations of which still puncture every day life in the United States. The Anglo-American debate sharpened the desire of many Northerners to free themselves from the guilt of American slavery by sectionalizing or removing itÃ¢â¬ ¦some Southern whites took the defense of slavery as a positive good. SlaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance on the Atlantic stage helped to shape AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Domestic dispute over the issueÃ¢â¬ (Mason, 2006). The South considered subjugation as a fundamental organization for the estate economy. It was connected to the nearby culture and society. As the United states extended, the North stressed that the South would bring subjugation into the new regions. This record ofShow MoreRelatedEssay On Celia A Slave868 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the book Celia, A Slave by Melton A. McLaurin, a slave woman all alone has to cope with a master who is always making her have sex with him. Newson, the master, fathered two children with her. When Celia kills her master, the man she loved turned against her, and she went on trial for NewsonÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. The author Melton A. McLaurin tells the reader about the lives of the men and women of the nineteen century and about the life and death of a slave named Celia. He wants the reader to understandRead MoreCelia, A Slave : A True Story1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPhilip Chapman HTY 141 0001 December 10, 2014 Celia, A Slave: A True Story By: Melton A. McLaurin Published by: HarperCollins Publishers, 1999 The book Celia, A Slave is the factual story about a girl that takes place in Calloway County Missouri. Celia was brought to court for the murder of her master and disposing of his body in her fireplace. The author, Melton McLaurin, describes in graphic detail her sexual abuse from her master, Robert Newsome, and events leading up to her court appearanceRead MoreSummary Of Celia A Slave1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCelia, a Slave was a factual interpretation of one isolated incident that depicted common slave fear during the antebellum period of the United States. Melton A. McLaurin, the author, used this account of a young slave woman s struggle through the undeserved hardships of rape and injustice to explain to today s naive society a better depiction of what slavery could have been like. The story of Celia illustrates the root of racial problems Americans still face in their society. Although not nearlyRead MoreFreedom, Without Qualification Is An Important Piece Of `` Americana ` `1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimportant topic when comparing the free and enslaved black women in three antebellum narratives: Harriet JacobsÃ¢â¬â¢s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Melton A. McLaurinÃ¢â¬â¢s Celia, a Slave, and Harriet E. WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Our Nig. Freedom is obviously preferable to enslavementÃ¢â¬âthis fact is indisputable. Millions of male and female slaves risked their lives to escape slavery; no free person of color wanted to be enslaved. However, merely saying Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ without qualification is a misnomer, for it is not a monolithicRead MoreSlave Men Were Needed For Labour Wok Essay1911 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSlave men were needed for labour wok. Many slave women were required to keep the slave men, or slave owner men, company and as domestic and plantation workers, and were therefore not pitied or seen as being that weak. They also were seen as producers of the next generation of slaves, and was therefore mainly raped and abused by many mas ters. On average, a woman would have her first child at twenty years old. Salve women were also seen as not having high morals and as they were the property of theRead MoreWomen s Rights Movement : The Seneca Falls Convention Of 18483176 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pageswell as introduce Sojourner Truth as a speaker. Sojourner accounted her life as a slave laborer, who could do any job better that a man, thus giving reason to why women should be treated equally to men rather than a subordinate. Fredrick Douglass, a former slave and eminent human rights leader in the abolition movement, was the first black citizen to hold a high U.S. government rank. Then there is Celia, a slave, whose story rattled America to its core through the raising of fundamental questionsRead MoreWhy Did Judge Hall Choose John Jameson for CeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Defense? Essay4850 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesCeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s defense? Given the impact of the slavery issue upon MissouriÃ¢â¬â¢s politics at the time, the Judge Hall hoped for the trail to be conducted as expeditiously and decorously as possible, in a manner that ran the least risk of arousing the ire of either camp. Judge Hall needed a capable attorney, one of considerable standing in the community. He needed an attorney with proven political sensibilities, one who had not participated significantly in the slavery debates. In short, he needed an attorneyRead MoreCaribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization4302 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagespresaged and enabled Europes Industrial Revolution. These new enterprises were worked by millions of enslaved Africans hauled from diverse West African societies from present-day Senegal all the way down to Angola; before them, by thousands of native slaves and European indentured workers; and, after them, by hundreds of thousands of indentured workers from Africa, Europes periphery, India, China, and even Java. Not only was it in the Caribbean where the first sustained European external colonizationsRead MoreAfrican American Women Slave Revolts2163 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSoftly: African American Women, Slave Revolts, and Historical Constructions of Racialized GenderÃ¢â¬ is an attempt by Rebecca Hall, to uncover womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in slave revolts and to address a concern of why enslaved women were silenced in revolt. She also focuses on why certain aspects of slave revolt are seen as exclusively male activities. To accomplish her task, she uses a number of book excerpts from prominent historians, as well as many sources f rom accounts of slave revolts in history. AlthoughRead MoreBibliographic Essay on African American History6221 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesGuide (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001); and Randall M. Miller and John David Smith, eds., Dictionary of Afro- American Slavery (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1988), provide informative narratives along with expansive bibliographies. General texts covering major historical events with attention to chronology include John Hope Franklin and Alfred A. Moss, Jr., From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (Boston: McGraw Hill, 2000), considered a classic; along with Joe William Trotter
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Kelly Gomez Course 2 Mrs.Horne Friday, October 16th, 2015 Book Review # 1: The Boy In Striped Pyjamas by John Boyne The Boy in Striped Pyjamas is a book written by John Boyne set during World War II. He is an author of 8 novels including this story. His novels are published into 42 languages. The story mostly told through Bruno s eyes, but also was allowed to freely move into other characters thoughts. It is told from third point of view. The book is focused on Shmuel and BrunoÃ¢â¬â¢s friendship. This book talks about Nazi and concentration camps and has sold more than 5 million copies. I selected this particular book for my review because I think this is a story that touched my heart and made me feel sad because of the cruel things the Nazis did to innocent Jews. When I first heard about this book in 5th grade. We had watched the movie and read the story. When I started watching the movie I put myself as a Jews. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the way the Nazis treated them. I wish that they could think like me because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think they would want to be slaves. This book made feel bad because they were boys even younger than me now imagine how many young Jews died after the Nazis didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need or like them anymore. During the time of the World War II, Bruno an 8-year-old boy and his family have to leave Berlin to live at a concentration camp called Auschwitz because his father has become commandant. Bored and without friends to play with, he wanders out behind his houseShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book The Boy Of The Striped Pajamas 2429 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesLiterature March 30, 2015 The Boy in the Striped Pajamas Introduction Ã¢â¬â¹Most people view the Holocaust as one of the worst things that has ever happened in human history. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very difficult to argue this belief. Not only were millions of people killed in battle, but millions were killed outside of battle. After his murder of over six million Jews, Adolf Hitler became regarded as one of the most hated and evil people in the world, and still is today. The Boy in the Striped Pajamas is a novel based onRead MoreAnalysis Of Sherman Alexie s Lone Ranger And Tonto Fistfight Heaven 1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthrough multiple stories and perspectives. Some novels, if their perspective of truth is not taken into account, still affect people in their every day lives, albeit major or minor. While all novels do have lessons, whether they be good or bad,Ã an author s obligation to tell the truth is, at times, simply up to the writer as well as the readers perception on what the truth is; some authors simply want to educate people on political times, a culture and/or subculture that is highly marginalized, forgottenRead MoreA Paradox Of Innocence : An Essay3669 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesInnocence: An Analysis of The Boy in the Striped Pajamas Introduction As a child, we are focused on the small aspects of life. We worry about eating ice cream on a hot summer day or when we will get the opportunity to go out on a cold snowy day and go sled riding with our friends and drink hot chocolate. We are fully focused on such basic childlike desires that we are completely unaware of serious events happening around us or in this case right next-door. As a nine-year-old boy, Bruno has no idea that
A Dying Colonialism is a story of how Fanon, during the Algerian Revolution, described how people changed the century-old cultural ways and adopted a certain practice that was designed to destroy the so called Ã¢â¬Å"tyrantsÃ¢â¬ during that time. On the first part of the book, Fanon devoted many pages to the veil and its political importance: Ã¢â¬Å"For the tourist and the foreigner, the veil demarcates both Algerian society and its feminine counterpart.Ã¢â¬ (A dying colonialism, pg. We will write a custom essay sample on For the tourist and the foreigner or any similar topic only for you Order Now 35-36) There is a certain complexity of the role of the veil in the Algerian revolution. There have been issues with European bosses trying to put their male Algerian employees on the corner by demanding that they bring their wives to company functions. So the dilemma is that if they agree to do as their bosses wish, they are going against their cultural ruling out against women being on display but if they decline, they would be risking their jobs they risked losing their jobs.Ã¢â¬ And so, as Fanon has stated, Ã¢â¬Å"The rape of the Algerian woman in the dream of a EuropeanÃ¢â¬ ¦is always preceded by a rending of the veil.Ã¢â¬ (A Dying Colonialism, pg. 45) On the first part of the book, one could see that Fanon emphasized the fact how women are distinguished during those times. The veil distinguishes an Algerian from a foreigner, and was stated in the page of the book below, one could see that Fanon took care in reiterating the fact that there are very clear distinctions on the society during those times. Ã¢â¬Å"In the case of an Algerian man, on the other hand, regional medications can be noted: the fez in urban centers, turbans, and djellabas in the countryside. The masculine garb allows a certain, margin of choice, a modicum of heterogeneity. The woman seen in her white veil unifies the perception that one has of Algerian feminine society. Obviously, what we have here is a uniform which tolerates no modifications, no variant. The haik very clearly demarcates the Algerian colonized society. it is of course possible to remain hesitant before a little girl, but all uncertainty vanishes at the time of puberty. With the veil, the things become well-defined and ordered. The Algerian woman in the eyes of the observer, Is unmistakably Ã¢â¬Å"she who hides behind the veilÃ¢â¬ (A Dying Colonialism, pg. 36) From the phrases above, one could see that there are certain way accepted way on how people should go about things. And that is what they wanted to change. They wanted to change the image of a traditional woman and they have transformed and defined women in a different light. That was why their political doctrine at that time was that Ã¢â¬Å"If we want to destroy the structure of Algerian society, its capacity for resistance, we must first conquer the women; we must go and find them behind their veil where they hide themselves and in the houses where men keep them out of sightÃ¢â¬ (pg.38) It was a very striking and very meaningful phrase such that it implies the power that women have that they think they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t explored yet. By finding these women behind their veil, it not only implies letting them know what they really are and should be, but it is also an implication that there are options that are yet to be explored in the governance of a country as rigid as Algeria during those times. If women can be conquered and put to use, there is so much unexpected things that can happen. The mind of a woman is yet to be explored and exploited and by un-inhibiting them from self-expression, the possibilities of changing the Algerian society are infinite. A Dying Colonialism is a story of the liberation and newly discovered power Fanon claims that the Algerian women have struggled for and succeeded through their active involvement in the Algerian. It was also implied in the book that Fanon believed that the recent victory of women for respect and equality held by the prominent women was permanent, an indication of the outlook on Ã¢â¬Å"modern,Ã¢â¬ socialist, revolutionary Algeria. How to cite For the tourist and the foreigner, Papers
Friday, April 24, 2020
Symbolism In The Awakening The Awakening contains many symbolic features, such as the way Edna uses art, the birds (the parrot and the mockingbird), sleep, music, and the houses Edna Pontellier lives in, but perhaps two of the most significant symbols are the clothes in the novel, not only of Edna, but also the other characters, and the water, whether it be the ocean, the gulf, or the sea. These two symbols are possibly the most significant because of their direct relationship to Edna Pontellier. Both the water and her clothes have the power to not only emphasize, but help show exactly how and what Edna is feeling. Clothes appear to have significant meaning in The Awakening, enough so that they are mentioned at almost every description of the characters. Edna Pontellier starts the novel fully dressed and appropriately dressed for a woman of her responsibilities, however, at her final moment, she is naked on the beach. Other women in the story also represent their ?position' and the way they feel in the way they dress. For example, Madmoiselle Reisz never changes her clothes. This could possibly symbolize her physical detachment from anything around her, including nature and any suppressed feelings. In contrast, Edna's clothes represent her physical attachment to society. She sheds her clothes the way a snake sheds its skin when it is time for a new one and it does not fit into the old one any longer. Edna doesn't feel like she can fit into society any longer. Madmoiselle Reisz, on the other hand, does not seem to have any desire to be more than what she has been given in the society in which she lives. Therefore, she does not change her clothes, because she does not feel the need for change in her life. Other characters, such as Madame Leburn always have new clothes to cover their bodies. This could, perhaps, represent the constant need to cover their sexuality as women in suppressed roles as wives and mothers. Ednas' nakedness at the end of the novel symbolizes her freedom from any claims her children may have on her and shows how her lack of clothes is equal to her lack of ?responsibility', of her family and the 1890s' society. The Ocean is a clear symbol of freedom for Edna. The water is where Edna feels replenished and she begins to realize that she is not satisfied with her life and roles as wife and mother. This happens on the day she learns to swim, which is something she had wanted to accomplish all summer. By learning to swim, she is empowered and becomes more self-aware, of not only her sexuality, but also of who she is and not who society says she should be. The water in The Awakening could be seen to symbolize Edna's rebirth into a more assertive woman. Every time she enters the water, she gets stronger, until finally her strength is more powerful than her love for her children, or her life. At this point she goes so far out to sea, that the water takes back the strength it had geven her. Both the water and the clothes in the novel are very important symbols, both helping to emphasize Edna Pontellier's new life. She starts the novel as a very suppressed woman (fully clothed) and ?covered by society and its' strict roles, and then ends naked as if she is escaping the restricted boundaries of her clothes and of society. The water is a constant source of new life for Edna, and as her clothes are removed to go into the water, they are replaced by a more greater sense of power and energy, the freedom that the water has helped her realize.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
If You Havent Read These Short Stories, You Should Recently, the literary world has had good reason to become interested in short stories again. The Rogues anthology includes some great stories by George R.R. Martin, Neil Gaiman, Garth Nix and other literary greats meant to hold us over until Martin releases The Winds of Winter. This post wont harp on about those, because every blog on the face of the planet has tread that ground. The anthology is a reminder however, of short stories which have endured the test of time. These are some of the short stories that grab and dont let go, despite their age.The Swimmer, John Cheever (1968)The Swimmer is a masterclass in using language to convey a sensation, and an excellent introduction to surrealism. Though the initial events of the story are grounded in reality- a man in his prime taking it upon himself to journey home by swimming through all of the pools of his wealthy neighbors properties- it soon becomes a less literal experience. This work deals with class and social hierarchy, but tho se are the boring bits. The real meat is in Cheevers use of language to demonstrate the link between the primary ideas of his work. The concepts of alcoholism, swimming, wealth, and loss each blur into one another until it is unclear where one idea begins and the other ends. Read the swimmer slowly, and with an eye to the language used, and it wont disappoint.The concepts of alcoholism, swimming, wealth, and loss each blur into one another in Cheevers The Swimmer. Photo by Guduru Ajay bhargav from Pexels.The Yellow Wallpaper, Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1892)The Yellow Wallpaper is likewise, an introduction. This story is one of the earliest works of American feminist literature, and is written in the first person. This is a darker story, and can feel a bit stifling to read, but has been widely adapted to the stage. A performance often feels much more light-hearted than the brooding tone of the story, while conveying the deeper themes of the work undiluted. Suffice to say that this is an early discovery of feminist issues, written by a woman, from a womans perspective. It is especially concerned with the treatment of women by doctors, and by the men in their lives; and with the relationship between infants and their parents (both father and mother). A tense and sometimes horrifying narrative, The Yellow Wallpaper is worth the stress of reading it, and downright enjoyable on the stage.The Wendigo, Algernon Blackwood (1910)The Wendigo is a special type of horror which captures the sense and grandeur of the Canadian and American frontiers. Drawing inspiration from the myth of the Wendigo- a creature said to always feel hungry, and thus gorge itself unendingly- this story is slow to start, but offers a fully realized and captured sense of the loneliness and desolation of the wilderness, alongside the tensions which encourage belief in the supernatural. Readers who weather the introduction, and who appreciate the tension of the environment and the severe costs of dec isions in the wilderness, will be rewarded with a supernatural and surreal tale about what it means to be lost in the woods. This is a must-read for any Canadian or American who has found themselves beneath the snow-covered boughs of a forest in winter.The Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad (1899)The Heart of Darkness is a must-read, just as the movie it inspired- Apocalypse Now- might be considered a must-watch. The reason I suggest reading Joseph Conrad however, is not as a dry lesson in colonialism, but because like The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Heart of Darkness is a tale about how the journey changes the destination. Joseph Conrads contribution to literature, and his tale of men set off down a river, is so iconic that it is impossible not to see the reflection of certain scenes in other works- The Life of Pi, for instance, borrows Conrads imagery of encountering a tiger; and the recent film The Lost City of Z likewise draws strongly on the narrative tropes of the journe y into the unknown genre. For this reason, Conrads work cannot be overlooked, despite recent scholarly assertions that its depictions of colonialism have not aged well.The Black Cat, Edgar Allan Poe (1843)The Black Cat, sticks out as one of the greatest uses of an unreliable narrator in fiction- that is, the character telling the story has reason to avoid telling the whole truth. This story is ostensibly horrific, but is the kind of horror which creates dread rather than fear or disgust. It is written from the perspective of a condemned man, of arguable sanity, and follows the chain of events leading up to that characters crime and subsequent sentence to hang. What makes this story worth reading is the vivid descriptions of the narrators actions, which lead a reader to believe in the validity of the actions, despite ample reason to doubt that characters claims. Couple this with the symbolism throughout the short story, and a dark conclusion, and The Black Cat stands out as a special type of brooding horror, perfect for reading by candlelight. Of course, Poe is famous for stories like this, and those who enjoy The Black Cat should also read The Purloined Letter.The Magic Shop, H. G. Wells (1903)Stories like The Magic Shop, are astounding in their quickness. A very light read, this story will remind Harry Potter fans of the room of requirement. It is also an example of a short story which creates a world in your mind, building the size, and shape, and occupants of the eponymous magic shop until they stick out vividly in your mind. This story captures the sense of wonder present in a child watching a display of magic, and twists it ever so slightly so that undercurrents of danger lurk. For the scholarly minded, the story paints an interesting picture of masculine parenthood in the late 1800s.The Gift of the Magi, O. Henry (1905)This story is a classic; and even if few remember its name, almost everyone has heard it told (and retold). The Gift of the Magi is impor tant because it demonstrates the inherent value in self-sacrifice, and because it is one of the few short stories that is neither horror, nor suspenseful; but which builds a narrative in the span of less than three pages, and delivers an ending which reveals a magnificent amount about both characters in the tale, and about love in general. Of the stories here, this is one of the shortest, and is also the most likely to be enjoyed by any reader, whether for the first time, or as it sparks their memory of having read it- or heard it told- in the past.Beyond the Door, Philip K. Dick (1954)Beyond the Door is an exercise in weirdness and will leave the reader unresolved. A departure from Philip K. Dicks normally light tone, and from his normally science-fiction works. This is the amusing, strange, and violent tale of a cuckoo clock and adultery. A very quick read, Beyond the Door is recommended here because it is hard to make heads or tails of, and it certainly tells a unique tale about marriage and how relationships can fall apart when viewed differently from each side.The Bet, Anton P. Chekhov (1889)The Bet is another, like Beyond the Door, which may leave readers unresolved. It is a short, short story discussing the virtues of morality and wealth, via the narrative device of a bet between two men regarding which is the greater punishment: death, or life imprisonment. Each character involved in the bet- a lawyer and a banker- are flawed, and so the outcome is ambiguous in some ways, but poses questions about what was sacrificed during the bet, and why each character lost gained wealth or morality by having made the bet. The bet itself is meaningful, rather than simply the outcome.Chekhovs The Bet is a short, short story discussing the virtues of morality and wealth. Photo by Thgusstavo Santana from Pexels.Araby, James Joyce (1914)Araby is perhaps another must-read piece, especially because it deals with the conflict between imagined or ideal circumstances, and re ality. It is interesting because of the way children, particularly the child whose point of view the story is written from, are described. Often, characters are light, or glowing, or otherwise magical. This attribute is given to children, despite the environment they are being raised in, which is grim. As the story progresses, the idea that children are ideal is tarnished, and the outcome of the story can be interpreted in a number of ways. We might conclude that a journey to the Araby bazaar is a journey into adulthood and that the change in the protagonists perspective is one created by a coming of age; or else we can view all of the romantic ideals at the outset of the story as simply a falsehood or faÃ §ade, which was never truly indicative of what the boy was experiencing. In either case, Araby will likely leave a hole in your heart, and make you think about who you were when you were young- and of course, that means you should read it.To concludeThe stories here are classics, but also powerful. Most of them are quite short, and great for a bite-sized piece of literary snack while we wait for George R. R. Martin to finish his next full-sized novel; or just so we remember some of the short stories which have helped shape the stories being told now. Its always good to know where stories come from, and how they change.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Definition and Examples of Lowercase Letters in English In the printed alphabetÃ and orthography, the term lowercaseÃ (sometimes spelled as two words) refers to small letters (a,b,c . . .) as distinguished from capital letters (A,B,C . . . ). Also known asÃ minusculeÃ (from LatinÃ minusculus, rather small). The writing system of English (as in most Western languages) uses a dual alphabet orÃ bicameral scriptthat is, a combination of lowercase and uppercase letters. By convention, lowercase is generally used for the letters in all words except for the initial letter inÃ proper nounsÃ and in words that begin sentences. (For exceptions, see Names With Unusual Capitalization, below.) Origin and Evolution of Lowercase Letters Originally, lower case letters stood by themselves. Their forms derived from the penned Carolingian minuscule. The upper and lower case letters received their present form in the Renaissance. The serifs of the capitals, or upper case letters, were adapted to those of the lower case alphabet. The capitals are based on an incised or chiseled letter; the lower case characters are based on a pen-written calligraphic form. Now the two kinds of letters appear together. (Jan Tschichold, Treasury of Alphabets and Lettering. Norton, 1995)Upper and lower case? The term comes from the position of the loose metal or wooden letters laid in front of the traditional compositors hands before they were used to form a word- the commonly used ones on an accessible lower level, the capitals above them, waiting their turn. Even with this distinction, the compositor would still have to mind their ps and qs, so alike were they when each letter was dismantled from a block of type and then tossed back into t he compartments of a tray. (Simon Garfield, True to Type: How We Fell in Love With Our Letters. The Observer, October 17, 2010) Names With Unusual Capitalization Several coinages provide a new look to English spelling, especially with names. We have never seen anything before quite like the use of a lower-case initial for a brand-name, as in iPod, iPhone, iSense and eBay, or airline companies such as easyJet and jetBlue, and it is not yet clear how to handle them, especially when we want one of these words to begin a sentence. There are precedents for introducing a capital in the middle of a word (as in such names as McDonalds and chemical substances such as CaSi, calcium silicate), but brand names have hugely increased its everyday visibility, as seen in AltaVista, AskJeeves, PlayStation, YouTube and MasterCard. (David Crystal, Spell It Out. Picador, 2012)Brand names or names of companies that are spelled with a lowercase initial letter followed by a capital letter (eBay, iPod iPhone, etc.) need not be capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or heading, though some editors may prefer to reword. This departure from Chicagos former usage re cognizes not only the preferred usage of the owners of most such names but also the fact that such spellings are already capitalized (if on the second letter). Company or product names with additional, internal capitals (sometimes called midcaps) should likewise be left unchanged. (Ã¢â¬â¹The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.The University of Chicago Press, 2010)Ã Ã Ã¢â¬â¹ Xerox or xerox? The dropping of the capital letter of the trademark is one piece of certain evidence that the trademark has indeed become generic...The OED [Oxford English Dictionary] lists XEROX both as capitalized, and in lower case, as well as a trademark and generic term: a proprietary name for photocopiers . . . also used loosely to denote any photocopy (20: 676). This definition points out clearly that xerox, either capitalized or in lower case, is used throughout the population as both a proper adjective and as a noun. (Shawn M. Clankie, Brand Name Use in Creative Writing: Genericide or Language Right? in Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in a Postmodern World, ed. Lise Buranen and Alice M. Roy. SUNY Press, 1999)A good rule to follow is that most trademarks are adjectives, not nouns or verbs. Use trademarks as modifiers as in Kleenex tissues or Xerox copiers. Similarly, trademarks are not verbsyou can copy on a Xerox machine, but you cannot xerox anything.(Jill B. Treadwell , Public Relations Writing. Sage, 2005) Pronunciation: lo-er-KAS Alternate Spellings: lower case, lower-case
Friday, February 14, 2020